What is The Period of Early Childhood Development?


Early Childhood Development Period


To facilitate understanding and organization, development is generally described in terms of periods. Some experts Classification of developmental periods in Santrock the most widely used in the following order: prenatal period, infancy, early childhood, middle and late childhood, adolescence, early adulthood, middle adulthood, and childhood. late adulthood.

Individual development takes place continuously. When viewed from the forms of development and patterns of behavior that appear typical for each particular age, the life span of an individual can be divided into several periods of development. According to Hurlock, the period according to is as follows:

1. Prenatal Period

Lasts from conception to birth

2. Neonates

Lasts from birth to the end of the second week after birth

3. Infancy

Lasts from the age of the end of the second week after birth until the age of two years

4. Early childhood

Lasts from the age of 2 years to the age of 6 years

5. Late childhood

Lasts from age 6 to age 10 or 12

6. Puberty/Pre-adolescence

Lasts from age 10 or 12 to age 13 or 14

7. Early Adolescence

Lasts from the age of 13 or 14 years until the age of 17 years

8. Late Adolescence

Lasts from the age of 17 years to the age of 21 years

9. Early Adulthood

Lasts from the age of 21 years to the age of 40 years

10. Middle Ages

Lasts from the age of 40 years to the age of 60 years

11. Old Age

Lasts from the age of 60 years until death

Read : The Uniqueness of Homeschooling Compared to Formal Schools  

Nevertheless, the developmental period for early childhood is described as follows:

1. Prenatal Period

Despite the fact that this first developmental period in the life span is the shortest of all developmental periods, in many respects this period is important or even the most important of all periods. This period, which begins at conception and ends at birth, is approximately 270 -280 days or nine months in length.

Although relatively, the prenatal period has six important characteristics, each of which has a slow effect on development over the life span, these characteristics are:

a. At this time the mixed traits, which serve as the basis for further development, are passed down once and for all, while favorable or unfavorable conditions, either before or after birth to a certain degree, can and may affect physical and mental characteristics. psychological factors that make up these innate traits, the changes that occur are quantitative and not qualitative.

b. Good conditions in the mother's body can support the development of innate traits while bad conditions can hinder its development and even interfere with future development patterns.

c. The sex of the newly created individual is determined at the time of conception and conditions in the mother's body cannot influence it, as can hereditary traits.

d. More normal development and growth occurs during the prenatal period than at any other period in an individual's entire life

e. The prenatal period is a period that contains many dangers, both physical and psychological. Psychological hazards can greatly affect the pattern of subsequent development or can even affect a development.

f. The prenatal period is the time when interested people form attitudes toward the newly created individual.

2. NeoNatus

Division of neonatal infancy

Partunate period, from the time of birth to between fifteen minutes and thirty minutes after birth. This period begins with the expulsion of the fetus from the mother's womb and ends after the umbilical cord is cut and tied.

During the Neonate period, (from cutting the umbilical cord and binding it to about the end of the second week of postmature life) the baby is now a separate individual, independent and no longer a parasite.

Neonatal baby characteristics:

Each period is characterized by certain developmental symptoms, the following are some important characteristics:
  • Neonatal infancy is the shortest period of all developmental periods
  • It is a time of radical adjustment
  • It is a period of cessation of development
  • Is an introduction and further development
  • It is a dangerous period



3. Infancy

Infancy lasts the first two years after the two-week newborn period. Characteristics of infancy, although similar to those of other periods in the life span, are of great importance during these two years of infancy,

Characteristics of infancy:

  • Infancy is the real basic period, although all of childhood, especially the early years, are considered as elementary, but infancy is the basis of the real period of life because at this time there are many patterns of behavior, attitudes and modes of emotional expression. formed.
  • Infancy is a time of rapid growth and change, babies develop rapidly both physically and psychologically. With this rapid growth changes occur not only in appearance but also in abilities.
  • Infants are a period of reduced dependence, this is the effect of the rapid development of body control that allows babies to sit, stand, walk and move objects.
  • The period of increasing individuality, perhaps the most important thing in increasing independence is that this situation allows the baby to develop things that suit his interests and abilities.
  • During the start of socialization, egocentrism, namely in young infants, quickly changes the desire to be part of a social group.
  • The beginning of the development of sex role classification
  • Infancy is an interesting period, this is because babies are considered attractive because of their helplessness and dependence.
  • Is the beginning of creativity, in the first months baby Learns to develop interests and attitudes that are the basis for his later creativity and to adapt to patterns laid by others.
  • Infancy is a time of danger, danger can be physical danger and psychological danger

4. Early childhood

At this time it is widely known that childhood is divided into two distinct periods namely the beginning and the end. The initial period lasts from two to six years and the late period from six until the time the child is sexually mature.

Characteristics of early childhood:

  • Most parents regard early childhood as an age that invites trouble or a difficult period. Infancy is often a problem for parents and generally revolves around the problem of physical care of the baby.

In early childhood educators refer to the early childhood years as preschool age to distinguish it from the time when children are considered old enough, both physically and mentally, to face the tasks of the time they begin formal education.

  • Psychologists use a number of different terms to describe the salient features of a child's psychological development during the early years of childhood. One term that is widely used as the age group, the period in which children learn the basics of social behavior in preparation for a higher social life that is needed for adjustment when they enter first grade.

Because the major developments that occur during early childhood revolve around mastering and controlling the environment, many psychologists label it the explorer age, a label that suggests that children want to know their environment, how it works, how it feels, and how it can act. become part of the environment.

One common way of exploring the environment is by asking questions, so this period is often referred to as the age of asking.

One of the most important and for many children the most difficult developmental task is to connect emotionally with parents, siblings and other people.

5. Late Childhood

Late childhood lasts from six years of age until the individual is sexually mature. At the beginning and end, late childhood is marked by conditions that greatly affect the personal adjustment and social adjustment of children.

Characteristics of late childhood:

  • For many parents late childhood is a difficult age, a time when the child no longer wants to obey orders and where he is influenced more by peers than by parents and other family members.
  • Educators label late childhood as primary school age . At that age, children are expected to acquire basic knowledge that is considered important for successful adjustment to adult life, and to learn certain skills, both curricular and extracurricular skills.
  • For psychologists, the end of childhood is the age of the group, a period in which children's main attention is focused on the desire to be accepted by their peers as members of the group.

Late childhood developmental tasks;

a. Physical development

Late childhood is a period of slow and relatively uniform growth until the pubertal changes begin, about two years before the child becomes sexually mature at a time when growth is rapid.

b. Early childhood skills

Children have a large number of skills that they learn during the preschool years, the skills they learn depend largely on the environment, partly on learning opportunities, partly on body shape and partly on what peers are playing with.

c. Talking Progress

As children's social horizons broaden, children discover that speaking is an important means of gaining a place in the group. Children also find simple forms of communication, such as crying and gestures, that are not socially acceptable. Children know that the essence of communication is that he is able to understand what other people are saying.

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