What are The Factors that Influence Early Childhood Development?

Factors Affecting Development

Many factors affect the development of children. According to Rini Hildayani, the factors that influence the development of children include hereditary factors, general contextual influences, normative and normative influences, and the influence of time: sensitive or critical periods. The following will explain a number of factors that can affect a child's development, namely as follows:

1. Heredity

The first factor that affects the development of a child is heredity. Heredity is genetically passed down from parents to children. Some developmental influences mainly come from heredity, traits or innate characteristics that are passed down from biological parents. Individual differences increase with age. Many of the typical changes in infancy and early childhood that appear to be tied to body and brain maturation, such as the normal sequence of physical changes and behavioral patterns, including readiness to master new abilities such as walking and talking.

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2. General Contextual Influence

Humans are social creatures. From the outset, they developed in a social and historical context. Children born at this time may have very different experiences from children born during the revolution. In general, the context that is directly related to a baby is the family.

a. Family

Families take various forms in different times and places. There are two forms of family structure that are commonly found, namely nuclear-family and extended-family. Nuclear family or nuclear family can be interpreted as a household unit, economy, and relationship of two generations consisting of one or two parents with biological children, adopted children, or stepchildren. This form of family is quite dominant in society. The extended family is a multigenerational network of relationships consisting of grandparents, uncles, aunts, cousins, and relatives who are more distantly related. This form of family is often found in our society and is a traditional pattern of community organization.

b. Socio-economic status and living environment

Socio-economic status is related to several related factors such as income, education, and employment factors. Various developmental processes such as differences in the interaction between mother and child and developmental outcomes, such as the health and thinking ability of a child are often associated with this status. Developmental outcomes are more influenced by factors related to socioeconomic status itself, such as the type of house and environment in which people live, nutritional quality and health.

c. Culture and Ethnic Groups

Culture refers to the whole way of life of a community or group that includes customs, traditions, beliefs, values, language, and physical products from tools to works of art. All learned behavior is passed from parents to children.

d. Historical context is the time when a person grows up covering how certain experiences affect one's way of life. Researchers have begun to focus on how certain experiences that are tied to time and place affect the direction of a person's life

3. Normative and Non-normative Influence

Development has a cause. To understand the similarities and differences in development, we must look at the effects experienced on many or most people and the effects experienced only by certain people. Events or influences that are experienced in a similar way by most people in the group are called normative influences. Meanwhile, non-normative influences are extraordinary events that have a major impact on the lives of individuals

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4. Critical period

Critical periods are periods in development when a person is especially open to certain experiences. For example, events that occur during pregnancy. If a pregnant woman is exposed to X-rays, takes drugs or develops certain diseases during pregnancy, her baby may show the effects of certain diseases depending on the nature of the disease and when it occurs.

In addition, the environment is a factor that determines whether or not the innate potential is achieved. A fairly good environment will allow the achievement of innate potential while a bad environment will hinder it.

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