What are the Developmental Tasks of Childhood, Adolescence, Early and Late Adulthood and Old Age?

Understanding Developmental Tasks

Definition of Developmental Tasks According to Experts .

Elizabeth B. Hurlock (1978) developmental tasks are learning to adapt to new life patterns, learning to have high ideals, seeking self-identity and at the age of maturity begin to learn to establish self-identity.

The theory of encouragement (motivation) put forward by Morgan , that all behavior is stimulated from within. That motivation is an impulse of desire as well as a driving resource to do something that comes from within.

The theory of dynamism says that in a living organism there is always a positive effort, he will always seek new experiences.

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Kartono is of the opinion that child extension is ensured by the presence of: a) All the qualities of heredity; b) Past and present experiences, in a certain social environment and as a product of a continuous learning process.

Havighurst (1953). Stating that the journey of a person's life is marked by the existence of tasks that must be fulfilled. Broadly speaking, Havighurst emphasized that developmental tasks carried out by a person during a certain period of life are adapted to social norms and cultural norms. Developmental tasks require a correlation between self-potential and the education received by children , as well as norms for existing socio-cultural norms.

Developmental tasks are tasks that must be completed by individuals at certain phases or periods of life, and if they succeed in achieving them they will be happy, but on the other hand if they fail they will be disappointed and reproached by their parents or society and further development will also experience difficulties.

Hurlock (1981) calls these developmental tasks Social Expectations. In a sense, every cultural group expects its members to master certain skills that are important and to acquire patterns of behavior that are agreed upon for various ages throughout the life span.

A developmental task is a task that appears at a certain period in the individual's life span, which if the task can be successfully completed will bring happiness and success in completing the next task, while if it fails it will cause unhappiness in the individual concerned, causing community rejection and difficulties. in completing the next task (Yusuf 1992:3).

Sources of developmental factors include:

1. Physical maturity, for example;

a. Learn to walk because of the maturity of your muscles

b. Learning to behave, associating with different sexes during adolescence because of the maturity of the sexual organs.

2. Cultural community demands, for example;

a. Learn to read

b. Learn to write

c. Learn to count

d. Learn to organize.

3. The demands of the individual's own drives and ideals, for example;

a. Choose a job

b. Choose a life partner.

4. The demands of religious norms, for example;

a. Obedient to worship God

b. Do good to fellow human beings.

Developmental Tasks in Childhood

Havighurst divides the developmental tasks over the human life span as follows:

Infancy and early childhood (0.0-6.0 years)

a. Learn to walk at the age of 9.00-15.00 months.

Learning to walk occurs between the ages of 9 to 15 months, at this age the bones of the legs, muscles and nervous system are mature for learning to walk.

b. Learn to eat solid food.

This happens in the second year, the digestive system and the chewing apparatus in the mouth have matured for this.

c. Learn to speak.

Make a meaningful sound and convey it to others through the voice. For that, it takes the maturity of the muscles and nerves of the speech apparatus.

d. Achieve physical stability.

Children's physical condition is very unstable when compared to adults, children quickly feel changes in temperature so that their body temperature changes easily. Different variations of food given can change the levels of salt and sugar in the blood and water in the body. To achieve physical stability, for children it takes time until the age of 5 years. In the process of achieving this physical stability, parents need to provide intensive care, both regarding the provision of nutritious food and maintaining cleanliness.

e. Forming simple concepts of social and natural reality.

At first this world for children is a complex and confusing situation. Over time, children can observe objects or people around them. Further development, children find regularities and can form generalizations (conclusions) from various objects that generally have the same characteristics. Children learn that certain images with certain loud voices that fulfill their needs are called "people", "mothers" and "fathers". Children learn that special objects can be grouped and given one name, such as cats, chickens, goats, and birds can be called animals. To achieve this ability (recognize understanding) requires the maturity of the nervous system, experience and guidance from adults.

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f. Learn to distinguish right from wrong, and begin to develop a conscience.

Learn to make good and bad relationships, which means developing conscience. Small children are controlled by naive hedonism, where pleasure is considered good, while suffering is considered bad (hedonism is a school which states that humans in their lives aim to seek pleasure and happiness). When a child grows up, he must learn the notion of good and bad, right and wrong, because as social beings, humans do not only pay attention to their own interests/enjoyment, but also have to pay attention to their own interests/enjoyments, but also have to pay attention to their own interests. others. Children know the meaning of good and bad, right and wrong is influenced by the education they get. At first, children learn what is forbidden means bad or wrong and what is allowed means good and right. This experience is the beginning of forming a child's conscience. Further development occurs through advice, guidance, reading books and analysis of one's own mind. Something that is important in developing a child's conscience is a role model from parents and their guidance. This is better than the use of punishment and reward, although in certain situations it is still necessary.

Developmental Tasks in Adolescence

a. Achieve more mature relationships with peers.

The nature of the task, the goal:

1. Learn to see reality, girls as women, and boys as men.

2. Develop into an adult among other adults.

3. Learn to work together with others to achieve common goals.

4. Learn to lead others without dominating them.

b. Achieve social roles as men and women.

The essence of their duties, adolescents can accept and learn social roles as adult men or women who are upheld by society.

c. Accept the physical state and use it effectively.

The essence of the task, this task aims to make teenagers feel proud, or be tolerant of their physique, use and maintain their physique effectively, and feel satisfied with their physique.

d. Achieve emotional independence from parents and other adults. The essence of the task

1. Free oneself from childish attitudes and behaviors or depend on parents,

2. Develop affection (love) for parents, and

3. Develop an attitude of respect for other adults without depending on them.

e. Achieve guaranteed economic independence.

The essence of the task, the goal is that teenagers feel able to create a life (livelihood). Important for boys and not so important for girls.

f. Choose and prepare for a career (job).

The essence of the task:

1. Choose a job that suits your abilities

2. Prepare yourself - have the knowledge and skills - to enter the job.

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g. Preparing for marriage and family life.

The essence of the task.

1. Develop a positive attitude towards marriage, family life, and having children.

2. Acquire proper knowledge about family management and child rearing.

h. Develop intellectual skills and concepts necessary for citizens.

The essence of the task.

1. Develop concepts of law, government, economics, politics, geography, human nature, and social institutions that are suitable for the modern world ,

2. Develop language skills and reasoning (thinking) skills that are important for efforts to solve problems effectively.

i. Achieve socially responsible behavior.

The essence of the task.

1. Participate as a responsible adult as a society,

2. Take into account social values in his behavior.

j. Obtain a set of values and an ethical system as a guide/guide in behaving.

The essence of the task.

1. Forming a set of values that may be realizable,

2. Develop awareness to realize values,

3. Develop awareness of their relationship with fellow human beings as well as nature as the environment in which they live, and

4. Understanding the picture of life and its values, so that they can live in harmony (harmony) with others.

k. Believe and fear God Almighty.

Achieve maturity in attitudes, habits and development of insight in practicing the values of faith and piety to God in everyday life, both personal and social.

Developmental Tasks in Early Adulthood

Developmental tasks of early adulthood

a. Able to establish more mature relationships with peers and other genders.

b. Able to perform social roles as men and women.

c. Accepts physical conditions and can use them effectively.

d. Has emotional independence from parents and other adults.

e. Have a feeling of being able to stand alone in the economic field.

f. Able to choose and prepare for a job.

g. Learn to prepare for marriage and family life.

h. Develop concepts and intellectual skills to live in society.

i. Have social behavior as expected by society.

j. Has a set of values that guide his actions.

Developmental Tasks in Late Adulthood

Late adult developmental tasks

a. Have social and state responsibilities as adults.

b. Develop and maintain an economic standard of living.

c. Guiding children and youth to become responsible and happy adults.

d. Develop leisure activities as an adult.

e. Accept and adjust to physical changes as a middle-aged person.

f. Adjusting to life as an aging parent.

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Developmental Tasks in Old Age

Developmental tasks in old age

a. Adjusting to physical conditions and declining health.

b. Adjusting to retirement situations and diminishing income.

c. Adjusting to the death of a spouse.

d. Build relationships with other seniors.

e. Fulfill social and state obligations.

f. Maintain condition and health.

g. Readiness to face death.

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