The Purpose of Studying Early Childhood Development and Concept of Age and Development


The Purpose of Studying Early Childhood Development


Some of the reasons that underlie the purpose of studying human development are because human development is unique, takes a long time, and is complex. Therefore, the purpose of studying human development is as follows.

1. Education experts and educators, guidance and counseling experts, family planning experts, health experts, doctors and nurses, child care providers, therapists, gerontologists (people who study and administer parental care) drug eradication, prison administrators, religious experts and dai, all of which require an understanding of human development.

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2. Understanding human development benefits every individual, family, and society. At this time various companies have included the history of the development of their employees for the career development of these employees.

3. An understanding of human development provides a contextual perspective. This is because the development process is the result of the interaction between three aspects, namely: the influence of the process of biological change, the influence of the history of human development, and the influence of the environment, such as events experienced by humans throughout their lives.

Understanding of human development is useful for planning, developing and controlling human life, both as individuals, as members of society and as citizens of a better, more useful and more progressive direction.


Concept of Age and Development


In human development, the concept of age is closely related to the period of human development. At this time the concept of age and developmental period has undergone many changes. In today's society, it is not uncommon for a 65-year-old to become the father of a toddler or at the age of 35 to become a grandfather. The age of 70 is still a student or the age of 55 is starting to enter the business world. Therefore, classifying humans by age is quite difficult.

In the past and until now the concept of human development is grouped based on the period of development and the period of development occurs in a certain age range. For example, early childhood is divided into infant period occurring at the age of 0-1 years, playing or toodler age 2-3 years, preschool age 4-6 years, elementary school age 7-13 years, adolescence 13-17 years, childhood adults 18-60 years old and 60 years old and over.

1. Chronological Age

Chronological age relates to the number of years a human has lived since he was born until a certain point in the human life before he dies. Botwinick (1978) as quoted by Santrock (1997: 22) explains that chronological age is no longer relevant to be used in explaining human development. Furthermore, this opinion is reinforced by Neugarten (1964: 204) who argues that the factor of age or chronological age is a weak thing to predict human development.

2. Psychological Age

It is related to the ability of humans to adapt to their environment and this ability is compared with chronological age. The human ability to adapt to the environment is strongly influenced by the learning process, the ability to solve problems, the ability to control emotions, motivation and ways of thinking. Based on this, it can be determined that a person has a mature or less mature psychological age.

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3. Social Age

Relating to the social role and expectations of a person in the age he goes through. Someone who expects her role as a mother will try to present something as a mother. Furthermore, she will be well aware that she is the mother of a 3-year-old child. Mothers and children aged 3 years showed different behavior with mothers dealing with children aged 20 years. Social age is used as a guide to determine roles in life, when to marry and when to become a father or mother. When will you be grandma or grandpa.

Based on the description above, it can be concluded that throughout human life, humans pass through various ages such as chronological age, biological age, psychological age and social age. Understanding this is useful in managing human development throughout life.

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