Developmental Task : Definition, Resources, Types and Norms

Definition of Tasks and Developmental Norms

Developmental tasks are tasks that must be carried out or mastered by someone at certain times or ages in accordance with the norms in certain societies and cultures in order to live happily and be able to complete subsequent tasks.

Meanwhile, developmental norms are standards for assessing the goodness or badness of a behavior, view, belief or even feeling in social groups that adhere to these norms. Norms are the result of human creation as social beings to regulate social relations so that they can take place smoothly so as to create a harmonious atmosphere. Norms are a form of value that has strict sanctions for violators. Norms are concrete forms of values that exist in society, for example the value of respecting and obeying parents is clarified and concreted in the form of norms in behavior and speaking to parents.

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So it can be concluded that developmental tasks are special tasks that must be carried out by individuals because they are driven by personal maturity, and driven by social pressure (social norms), so that the individual concerned can maintain normal development as social beings in society. . As well as developmental norms, namely the standards or guidelines for behaving and behaving.

James C. Coleman in his book "Abnormal Psychology and Modern Life" (1956, pp. 67-70) divides developmental tasks in normal development in seven activities or periods, namely:

1) From dependency to independence (freedom)

2) From the pleasure principle to the reality principle.

3) From incompetence to competence.

4) From autoplastic to alloplastic.

5) From non-productive to productive.

6) From non-differentiation to differentiation.

7) From completely unconscious to fully conscious.

Definition of Developmental Tasks According to Experts

There are several definitions of developmental tasks from experts, namely:

a. Elizabeth B. Hurlock (1978), the developmental task is learning to adapt to new life patterns, learning to choose high ideals, seeking self-identity and at the age of maturity begin to learn to establish self-identity.

b. Kartono argues that child extension is ensured by the presence of: a) all the qualities of heredity, b). past and present experiences, in a certain social environment and as a product of a continuous learning process.

c. Havighurst (1953), suggests that a person's life journey is marked by the presence of tasks that must be fulfilled. Broadly speaking, Havighurst asserts that the developmental tasks that a person undertakes during a certain period of life are adapted to cultural norms. Developmental tasks require a correlation between self-potential and education received, as well as existing socio-cultural norms.

Developmental Task Resources

These developmental tasks relate to attitudes, behaviors, or skills that should be possessed by individuals according to their age or stage of development.

The emergence of these developmental tasks stems from the following factors:

a. Physical maturity, namely learning to walk because of the maturity of the leg muscles, learning to behave, associating with people of the opposite sex during adolescence because of the maturity of the sexual organs.

b. Cultural community demands, namely learning to read, learning to write and learning to count.

c. Demands from self-motivation and individual goals, namely choosing a job and choosing a life partner.

d. The demands of religious norms, namely obedient to worship God and be kind to fellow human beings.

Types of Developmental Norms

Norms are rules with sanctions intended to encourage and even pressure individuals, groups or society as a whole to achieve social values. The following are the types of norms in development:

1) A religious norm

These are absolute rules because they come from God Almighty. Religious norms contain God's instructions in the form of orders (obligations and recommendations) prohibitions and sanctions, for those who violate them are in the afterlife.

2) Obscenity

Are the rules that come from the voice of the human heart in the form of commands and prohibitions of the human conscience. Example: we must be honest, love fellow human beings and others.

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3) Courtesy Norms

It is a rule of life that regulates human attitudes and behavior in society.

4) Habit Norms

This norm is the result of actions that are done repeatedly in the same form so that it becomes a habit.

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