Understanding Stress, Sources, Miscellaneous and Stress Models According to Experts


Stress is one condition when individual respond to change in a normal balance status (Kozier, 2011).

Stress is all the situation where non- specific demands require a individual respond and To do action (Selye, 1976 in Potter and Perry, 2005).

Stressors are every incident or stimulus that causes individual experience stress. When somebody dealing with stressors their response called as strategy coping, response coping or mechanism coping 


There is many source stress, which large could classified as an internal stressor or external, or developmental stressors or situational.

a. Internal stressors come from from in self someone, as example, fever, condition like pregnancy or menopause, or something state emotion such as guilt, cancer or feeling depression.

b. External stressors originated from outside individual, as example displacement to another city, death member family or pressure from friend peer, change mean in temperature environment, change in role family or social or pressure from couple.

c. Developmental stressors occur on available time estimated along life individual. On every Step development, task certain must achieved for prevent or reduce stress.

d. Situational stressors no could estimated and could occur any time throughout live. Stress situational could positive and negative. Example

1) Death member family
2) Wedding or divorce
3) Birth child
4) Work new
5) Disease

So far where influence positive and negative incident this depend on Step development individual. As For example, the death of a parent could more cause stress for child 12 years old compared in people aged 40 years


Reviewed from cause, then stress shared Becomes seven kinds, including :

1) Stress physique

Stress caused because state physique like because high temperature or very low, noise, light sun or because voltage current electricity.

2) Stress chemical

Stress this caused because substance chemical like drugs, substances poisonous acid, base, factor hormone or gas and principle because influence compound chemistry.

3) Stress microbiology

Stress this caused because germs like presence of viruses, bacteria or parasites.

4) Stress physiological

Stress caused because disturbance body organ function of them disturbance from structure body, function tissues, organs, etc.

5) Stress growth process and development

Stress caused due to the growth process and development like on puberty, marriage and further process age.

6) Stress psychic or emotional

Stress caused because psychological stimulus disorder or inability condition psychological for adapt self like interpersonal, social culture or factor religion (Alimul, 2008).


Origin and the effects of stress can checked street term medical and theoretical models behavior. Stress model is used for identify stressor for individual certain and predict response individual the to stressor. Each model emphasizes aspect different stress.

Stress model help nurse identify stressor in situation certain and for predict response individual. Nurse could use knowledge about the model for help client strengthen response healthy coping and in adapt no response healthy and no productive. Three main models stress is a stimulus based, based model response and based on transaction .

a. Stimulus Based Model

In the stimulus based model, stress defined as a stimulus, event live, or group the situation awaken reaction physiological and/or psychology that can increase vulnerability individual to disease. In In his research, Holmes and Rahe (1976) determined that score numeric against 43 changes or incident live. Scale incident life that gives rise to stress used for document experience relative individual new, like divorce, pregnancy and retirement. In corner look this is fine incident positive nor negative considered cause stress.

Scale similar also developed, but all scale must used with careful because degrees triggered stress events that happened very individual. As example, divorce could Becomes very traumatic for someone, while for others maybe only cause relatively a little anxiety. Besides that, a lot scale not yet tested to age, social status economy or sensitivity culture.

b. Model Based Response

Stress could also considered as one response. Definition this developed and spelled out by Selye (1956, 1976) as response nonspecific body every demands posed ” (1976). Schafer (2000) defines stress as "generation" thought and body as response to the demands it makes.

Response stress selye be marked with one chain or pattern incident the so called physiology syndrome adaptation general (GAS) or or syndrome stress. For differentiate reason stress from response stress, Selye (1976) created term stressor for showing every factors that give rise to stress and disturb balance body. Stress is one condition so that only could observed through the changes caused stress on body. Response body the syndrome stress or GAS, happens with release hormone adaptive certain and change next on structure and composition chemical body. Affected body organs by stress is channel digestive tract, adrenal glands and structure lymphatic. With prolonged stress, the adrenal glands experience Enough magnification significant; structure lymphatic like thymus splee and node lymph, experience atrophy (shrink); and deep ulcer visible in layers stomach.

Alarm Reaction

Reaction beginning body is alarm reaction, which alert growth body. Selye (1976) shared Step this into the two part, namely : phase shock and phase shock.

During phase shock, stressor could feel by aware or no aware by individual. On all case, system nerve autonomous react and amount big epinephrine (adrenaline) and cortisone let go body. Individual then ready for response" run "or opponent". This primary response going on short, from 1 minute up to 24 hours.

Part second alarm reaction is called phase shock. During phase this, the resulting changes by body During phase shock reversed. By because that, the best individual mobilized for react During phase shock alarm reaction.

Stage resistance

Stage second in GAS and LAS syndrome, stage resistance, occurs when body adapt. In other words, body attempted face stressor and for limit stressor to the smallest area of the body that can be face it.

Stage fatigue

During Step third, stage fatigue, adaptations made body During Step second no could maintained. This thing means that method used for face stressor has experience fatigue

c. Model Based Transaction

Transactional stress theory based on results research by Lazarus (1996), which states that stimulus theory and theory response no consider difference individual. Second theory the no explain the factors that make some people, but no make others, respond by effective. Besides that second theory no could interpret why some people can adapt in period longer time than part other.

Lazarus realized that demands and pressure and pressure environment certain cause stress on enough many people, however emphasize that sensitivity and vulnerability of people and group to incident certain different, as well as interpretation and reaction them. As example in face disease, individual could respond with disclaimers other individuals with anxiety and others with depression .

Theory stress transactional Lazarus emphasized group response cognitive, affective and adaptive (coping) that appears from transaction individual-environment. Individual and environment no could separated; both of them each other affect . Stress refers to on every incident when demands environment, internal demands or both of them burden or exceed source adaptive, social system, or network system individual. Individual respond to perception change environment with response adaptive or coping.

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