Theories of Adolescent Development, Psychoanalytic, Psychosocial, Cognitive, Behavioral and Social Learning


Theories of Adolescent Development


1. Psychoanalytic Theory

Psychoanalysis is a theory based on analyzing a person's psychology. Psychoanalytic theorists assert that early experiences with parents will greatly shape a person's development, especially adolescents. These characteristics are studied in the main psychoanalytic theory, namely from Sigmund Freud. Asmadi (2004:103) says that, according to Freud, the structure of the human personality consists of aspects of Das Es (The Id), Das Ich (The Ego), and Das Ueber Ich (the super ego).

From Freud's grand theory of the id, ego, and superego, Freud believed that it was filled with tension and conflict. To reduce this tension, teens store information in their subconscious mind. He also said that even the smallest behavior has special meaning when the unconscious power behind the behavior is displayed.

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The ego's way of dealing with the conflict between its demands for reality, the id's desires and the restraints of the superego is by using a defense mechanism , meaning the term psychoanalysis refers to a method that the ego unconsciously destroys reality and therefore protects itself from anxiety. According to Freud, the initial stages of personality development are as follows:

a) The oral stage ( oral stage ) is a development that occurs at the age of the first 18 months, where the baby's pleasure is centered around the mouth.

b) Anal stage ( anal stage ) is a developmental stage that occurs between the ages of 1.5 and 3 years, in which the child's greatest pleasure includes the anus or the excretory function associated with the anus.

c) The phallic stage is the stage of development that occurs between the ages of 3 to 6 years, the word phallus means the penis or male genitalia. This means that pleasure is centered on the genitals because children find that manipulating themselves provides pleasure.

d) The latency stage is a developmental stage that occurs between the ages of 6 years and puberty, the child suppresses all sexual interests and develops intellectual and social skills.

e) The genital stage is the stage of development that occurs at puberty. This period is a time of revival of sexual urges, the source of sexual pleasure which is from other people who are not family. Teenagers are at this stage.

2. Psychosocial Theory

Erikson developed psychosocial theory as a development of Freud's psychoanalytic theory. Erik Erikson said that the stage of individual development during his life is influenced by social interactions that make individuals mature physically and psychologically.

According to Erikson, the more successful an individual is in dealing with conflict, the healthier the individual's development will be. As stated, as follows:

a) Trust versus mistrust is the psychosocial stage Erikson experiences in the first year of life. Trust grows from a feeling of physical comfort and less fear and anxiety about the future.

b) Autonomy versus shame and doubt ( autonomy versus shame and doubt ) is a developmental stage that occurs at the end of infancy and "toddler" (ages 1-3 years).

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c) Initiative versus guilt ( initiative versus guilt ) is a developmental stage that occurs during the school period.

d) Industry versus feelings of inferiority ( industry versus inferiority ) is a developmental stage that occurs around elementary school age.

e) Identity versus identity confusion ( identity versus identity confusion ) is a developmental stage experienced by individuals during adolescence. At this time individuals are expected to question who they are, what they really are, and where they are headed in their lives.

f) Intimacy versus isolation ( intimacy versus isolation ) is the stage of development experienced by individuals during early adulthood. At this time the individual faces the developmental task of forming intimate relationships with others.

g) Generativity versus stagnation ( generativity versus stagnation ) is the stage of development experienced by individuals in middle adulthood.

h) Integrity versus despair ( integrity versus despair ) is a stage of development experienced by individuals in late adulthood.



3. Cognitive Theory

While psychoanalytic theory emphasizes the importance of the unconscious mind of adolescents, cognitive theories emphasize their conscious mind. Two important cognitive theories are the theory of cognitive development and Piaget's and information processing theory.

According to Piaget's theory, adolescents are actively constructing their own cognitive world, information is not only poured into their minds in the environment. Piaget also stated that adolescents adjust their minds to include new ideas, because additional information will develop understanding. Piaget's four stages are as follows:

a) Sensorimotor stage ( sensoriotor stage ), which lasts from birth to about 2 years. At this stage, children construct about the world by coordinating sensory experiences (such as seeing and hearing) with physical and motor actions.

b) The preoperational stage is the one that lasts from 2-7 years of age. At this stage, children begin to represent the world with words, images, and pictures.

c) The concrete operational stage is the one which lasts from approximately 7-11 years. At this stage, children can perform operations and logical reasoning, replace logical thinking, replace intuitive thinking, as long as reasoning can be applied to examples or concrete.

d) The formal operational stage is that which occurs between the ages of 11 and 15 years. At this stage, the individual moves beyond the actual and concrete world of experience, and changes the way he thinks about the development of thinking in children and adolescents.

4. Behavioral Theory and Social Learning

This theorist would also argue that the reasons for adolescent attraction to each other are not realized, adolescents are not aware of how their biological heritage and life experiences in childhood have played a role in influencing their personality in adolescence.

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Social learning theorists say that it's not mindless robots, which respond mechanically to other people in our environment. The American psychologists Bandura and Walter Mischel were the main architects of a contemporary version of social learning theory called cognitive learning theory. Bandura believes that we learn by observing what other people do. Through observational learning (modeling or imitation), we cognitively present the behavior of others and then may assume that behavior. The most recent learning and developmental models include behavior, humans and cognition, and the environment. The social learning approach emphasizes the importance of empirical research in the study of development. This research focuses on the processes that explain the development of the social and cognitive factors that influence being the person we are today.

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