The Impact of Juvenile Delinquency, How to Overcome It and the Application of Albert Cohen's Theory

Definition of Juvenile Delinquency

We certainly know that juvenile delinquency is a form of deviant behavior, which means crossing the boundaries of existing norms. We often hear about this problem both in the environment and in the mass media . Adolescents are unstable individuals whose emotions are vulnerable to being uncontrolled by proper self-control. Family problems, disappointment, lack of knowledge, and the invitation of friends who hang out freely make the potential of Indonesia's young generation diminish in the progress of the nation.

Adolescence is a period of transition from childhood to adulthood. Education experts agree that adolescents are those aged between 16 and 24 years. A teenager can no longer be said to be a child, but still not mature enough to be considered an adult. They are looking for the most suitable lifestyle for them and this is often done through trial and error, although through many mistakes. Mistakes made often cause worries and unpleasant feelings for the environment and their parents.

Read : Guidance and Counseling, Definition, Role and Purpose of Guidance and Counseling in Schools 

The notion of dating in this era of information globalization is very different from the notion of dating 15 years ago. As a result, nowadays many teenagers drop out of school because they are pregnant. Therefore, during courtship, children should be briefed on idealism and reality. Children should be raised to realize that reality is often not what we expect, on the contrary, expectations do not always come true. Likewise with dating. The beauty and warmth of courtship will not last forever.

The Impact of Juvenile Delinquency

Juvenile delinquency may now be familiar to us to hear, many teenagers do not think about the negative impact of their actions. Usually there are so many factors that they can do whatever they want even though they know what they are doing is wrong. Indeed today, many teenagers are easy and easy to influence and be influenced by their social environment such as saying bad things, smoking, gambling, drug users and dealers, and getting pregnant out of wedlock.

Delinquency like this is usually caused by many factors, for example due to family factors, when children feel unnoticed and lack of love from the family, especially from parents so that even children will feel lonely and eventually children will look for fun outside and they will hang out freely with whomever. just what they want. Environmental factors can also affect the behavior of children, if the environment is good, the child will at least behave well and vice versa when he is in a bad environment, the child will behave badly, especially when he is a teenager, the child will be easily influenced. And maybe because of the lack of religious factors, this is usually parents who pay less attention so that children do not get good religious education, children will be far from God so that they will instill bad morals in the child.

There are many negative impacts of juvenile delinquency for themselves and those around them. If not handled immediately, he will grow into a bad personality. Adolescents who commit certain delinquencies will certainly be avoided or even ostracized by many people, these teenagers will only be considered as bullies or useless people. As a result of

being ostracized by the people around him, the teenager will experience a "psychological disorder". What is meant by mental disorders does not mean crazy, but he will feel isolated in terms of socialization, feel very sad, or even hate the people around him. From this juvenile delinquency, it is the family who bear the shame, this is certainly very detrimental. Imagine if there is a teenager who is then influenced by promiscuity, it is almost certain that he will not have a bright future. His life will slowly crumble and never have time to fix it.

It is better for parents to really be able to guide their children and always give good directions so they don't fall into promiscuity. The love and attention of parents is needed by their children. And especially for teenagers, they must have their own awareness that falling into promiscuity will make the future bleak, increase Faith so that they are not easily tempted by bad behaviors.

How to Overcome Juvenile Delinquency

Solutions for Juvenile Delinquency From the various factors and problems that occur among today's youth as mentioned above, of course there are some appropriate solutions in the development and improvement of today's youth. Juvenile delinquency in any form has negative consequences both for the general public and for the youth themselves. Actions to overcome juvenile delinquency can be divided into :

1. Preventive Actions Prevention of juvenile delinquency in general can be done in the following ways:

Recognizing and knowing the general and distinctive characteristics of adolescents
Know the difficulties that are generally experienced by teenagers. Which difficulties are usually the cause of the emergence of an outlet in the form of delinquency.

2. Youth development efforts can be carried out through:

Strengthening the mental attitude of adolescents so that they are able to solve the problems they face.
Providing education is not only in increasing knowledge and skills but also mental and personal education through teaching religion, character and etiquette.

3. Providing the facilities and creating an optimal atmosphere for proper personal development.

Guidance is carried out for adolescents with two approaches :

1. Direct approach, namely guidance given personally to the youth themselves. Through conversation reveal the difficulties of adolescents and help overcome them.

2. Approach through groups, where he is already a member of the group or small group.

3. Repressive Measures

Efforts to take action against violations of social and moral norms can be carried out by imposing penalties on every violation. With the existence of firm sanctions for juvenile delinquents, it is hoped that later the perpetrator will be "deterred" and not do things that deviate again. Therefore, follow-up must be enforced through punishment or direct punishment for those who commit crimes indiscriminately. For example, youth must obey the rules and ordinances that apply in the family. Besides that, there needs to be some kind of punishment made by parents for violations of family rules and regulations . The implementation of the rules must be carried out consistently. Any violation of the same should be subject to the same sanctions. Meanwhile, the rights and obligations of family members change according to their development and age. In the school environment, it is the principal who is authorized to carry out penalties for violations of school rules. In some cases, the teacher also has the right to act. However, severe penalties such as suspension or expulsion from school are the authority of the principal. Teachers and supervisory staff are tasked with conveying data regarding violations and possible violations and their consequences. In general, repressive measures are given in the form of giving verbal warnings. or in writing to students and parents, carry out special supervision by the principal and a team of teachers or supervisors and prohibit schooling for a while (suspension) or so on depending on the type of violation of school rules.

Read : The Role of Guidance and Counseling in Student Learning, Tutoring, Social, and Personal Problems  

4. Improving Perspective

Improving perspective by trying to be optimistic and live in "reality", meaning that teenagers should be educated from a young age so that they do not have dreams that are not in accordance with their abilities so that if teenagers get disappointed they will be able to respond positively.

5. Maintaining a Balanced Lifestyle

That is the need for teenagers to learn discipline by managing time, emotions, energy and thoughts well and usefully, for example managing time in daily activities and filling spare time with positive activities.

6. Honest To Yourself

That is realizing basically every individual wants the best for each other. So that promiscuity can be avoided. So with this teens do not abuse their emotions and themselves.

7. Improve the Way of Communicating

Improving the way of communicating with other people so that good relations are established with the community, to limit ourselves to activities that have a negative impact, we can start with good communication with the people around us

8. The Need for Teens to Think for the Future It

is rare for teenagers to think about the future. If every teenager is able to instill the question "What will happen to me later if I neglect to take steps to become a better individual?" then it is accompanied by positive actions for the self-improvement of the youth. With that, teenagers will think long about doing deviant things and will reduce the number of teenagers who are exposed to HIV & AIDS later.

9. Lots of Positive

Activities This method, according to various studies, is very effective. Free association, usually carried out by young people who have a lot of free time, a lot of playing time, and weekend nights. So, to anticipate this, diverting time for activities through positive things needs to be developed. For example, by involving young people in social organizations, pursuing their hobbies and developing them into profitable businesses, as well as participating in youth creativity events. Thus, his youth will be devoted to positive things and less time to think about negative things such as promiscuity.

10. Socialization of the Dangers of Free Association

Among young people, promiscuity is often done because they may not know the consequences. For example, a deadly venereal disease. Well, socializing this. Information about the dangers posed by promiscuity should continue to be disseminated among young people. It is hoped that they will also have information for their common sense considerations. If this information has not been obtained, there is a possibility that they will continue to engage in promiscuity as they please. However, if the information has been obtained but they are still determined to do that, it is another matter. It seems that there needs to be special handling, especially those who are openly proud to have promiscuity.

11. Upholding the Rule of Law

For those who are proud, there is nothing else that can stop them other than the existence of legal instruments and the rule of law that can ensnare them. At least as a deterrent effect. Such things must be formulated and implemented through the laws in force in our country. This step is the last bastion to save young people from immorality because promiscuity behavior will automatically destroy this nation.

Factors causing juvenile delinquency.

Adolescence lies between childhood and adulthood. Adolescence is considered to have begun when the child has matured in the sexual aspect and then ends when it is legally mature. Adolescence is often known as the rebellion period. Early adolescence starts from the age of 13 years to 16 years and late adolescence from 16 years to 18 years, they are still categorized as children in the Child Protection Act No. 23 of 2002 . At this time, a child who has just experienced puberty often displays various emotional turmoil, withdraws from the family, and experiences many problems, either at home, school, or in his circle of friends.

Family factors greatly affect the development and growth of children, if the child is treated badly, such as being discriminated against from the family. drunkenness, etc. The general characteristic of adolescent development is that adolescence is a transition from childhood to adulthood so that it often shows characteristic traits, such as anxiety, confusion, because of a conflict, the desire to fantasize, and group activities.

Environmental factors, according to sociologist Kartono, include the failure of adolescents to go through their transition period, from small children to adults, and also because of their weak self-defense against the influence of the outside world that is not good. As a result, parents complain about their children's unruly behavior. , sometimes even acting against them. Family conflicts, mood swings, depression, and the emergence of risky behavior are more common in adolescence than at other times throughout the life span.

Mental factors that are still very unstable and turbulent in him are barely controlled, while emotion itself is every activity or agitation of thoughts, feelings, passions, and every mental state that is intense and very overflowing. Emotions.

Application of Albert Cohen's Theory of Juvenile Delinquency Subculture

According to Cohen, the delinquent subculture (a subculture whose values conflict with the values of the dominant culture) is a problem that exists in the slums of large US cities. According to Cohen, the relative position of young families in the social structure determines the problems children face throughout their lives. lower-class families who never knew the lifestyle of a middle-class family. For example, they cannot socialize their children in a way that would prepare them to enter the middle class. Children grow up with poor communication skills, weak commitment to education and an inability to delay desires.

Delinquent children reverse the norms of the middle class, by making their own actions without regard to the truth. As a consequence, their delinquent actions are carried out without any useful purpose and solely for their evil and pleasure. So these kids don't steal things to eat , wear or sell. Their delinquents are shown to fight random people and property, unlike goal-oriented activities like adult criminal groups do.

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Forms of Juvenile Delinquency and Judging From the Age Factor

According to its form, Sunarwiyati S (1985) divides juvenile delinquency into three levels:

(1) ordinary delinquency, such as fighting, fighting between students, wandering, skipping school, leaving the house without saying goodbye

(2) delinquency that leads to violations and crimes. such as driving a motorbike without a driver's license, taking parent's belongings without permission

(3) special delinquency such as narcotics abuse, sex outside marriage, rape, murder, theft etc.

Meanwhile, according to Sudarsono (1995:13) which includes student or juvenile delinquency include:

a) the initial act of theft includes the act of telling lies and dishonesty; b) fighting between students including brawls between students; c) disturbing friends; d) hostile to parents and siblings, including acts of rude and disrespectful words to parents and siblings; e) smoking marijuana, including the initial act of smoking marijuana, namely smoking; f) watching pornography; dang) doodles on school walls

A variety of social, cognitive, and physical factors can help explain the high crime rate in adulthood. This increase in crime corresponds to the time when youth find their identity. On the one hand, they are prevented from integrating into the adult world, on the other hand they face other sources of motivation to commit crimes: money, status, power, autonomy, identity claims, strong experiences in sex, adrenaline surges, or drug-induced unconsciousness, very close friends. value independence, or even deviations from conventional morality. Furthermore, their status as teenagers makes them feel protected from various social and legal costs, and their state of cognitive development makes them less concerned about the consequences of their actions. At the same time, they also have the physical strength needed to commit crimes. Finally, it must be remembered that deviant behavior is basically normal in adolescents; as Jolin and Gibbons (1987:238) point out, “many juvenile lawlessness is essentially a stage of 'adulthood'.”

A number of authors attribute the high decline in crime rates during late adolescence and early adulthood to physical ability. However, a review of the literature on age in a biological perspective shows that physical abilities (strength, energy, and the like) continue to increase long after the age that is considered by society as the age at which crimes such as robbery and theft begin to decline sharply (15–17 years). Furthermore, after reaching the ages of 25 and 30, physical abilities decline more slowly than the rate of crime requiring physical strength (Shocketal, 1984).

Attitude of Related Parties Regarding Teenagers

1. For Parents Parents

should pay more attention to their children. And give directions on how to get along. Parents must be friends, so that children can be open and children can make parents a trusted friend.

2. Educators (Teachers )

Provide an illustration that, quite a lot of problems about wrong associations that arise among teenagers. Therefore, consultation and counseling about good and right relationships is very necessary, and this activity can be carried out with the help of a teacher.

3. Teens

The most important thing is how teenagers can position themselves as good and right teenagers according to the demands and norms that apply in society. So that we can become good teenagers and so that we can create a successful country and nation.

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4. For the General Public The general

public should participate in prevention. If you see things that are not fair that are done by teenagers, immediately report it to local law enforcement so that they are given counseling and guidance.

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