Guidance and Counseling, Definition, Role and Purpose of Guidance and Counseling in Schools

Guidance and counseling

Some experts state that counseling is the core of guidance activities. There are also those who say that counseling is one of the guidance services. The terms guidance and counseling can also be replaced with the term learning services.

1. Definition of Guidance

According to Jones (1963 in Soetjipto and Kosasi, 2009: 61), "Guidance is the help given by one person to another in making choices and adjustments and in solving problems". The supervisor's job is only to help the individual being guided to be able to help himself.

Meanwhile, Rochman Natawidjaja (1978 in Soetjipto and Kosasi, 2009: 62) said that:

"Guidance is the process of providing assistance to individuals that is carried out continuously, so that the individual can understand himself so that he is able to direct himself and can act naturally in accordance with the demands and circumstances of his family and society."

Furthermore, Bimo Walgito (1982 in Soetjipto and Kosasi, 2009: 62) received the following guidance formula.

"Guidance is assistance or assistance given to individuals or groups of individuals in avoiding or overcoming difficulties in their lives, so that individuals or groups of individuals can achieve prosperity in their lives."

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From the definitions above, it can be concluded that guidance is.

a) A continuous process

b) A process of helping individuals

c) The assistance provided is intended so that the individual concerned can direct and develop himself optimally according to his abilities and potential

d) Activities whose main purpose is to provide assistance so that individuals can understand themselves and be able to adapt to their environment

2. Definition of Counseling

The term counseling (counseling) is defined as counseling. However, according to experts, the meaning is still counseling because this activity is more specific than just counseling. To emphasize its specificity, the terms guidance and counseling are used.

According to James P Adam, quoted in the Ministry of Education and Culture (1976: 19a),

"Counseling is a reciprocal relationship between two individuals in which one (counselor) helps the other (counselee) so that he or she better understands himself in relation to the life problems he faces at that time and in the future."

Bimo Walgito (1982 in Soetjipto and Kosasi, 2009: 63) states that counseling is assistance given to individuals in solving life problems by means of interviews, in ways that are appropriate to the individual circumstances faced to achieve mutual prosperity.

Based on these opinions, obtained the following characteristics of counseling activities.

a) Generally carried out individually

b) It is generally carried out in a face-to-face meeting

c) For the implementation of counseling, an expert is needed

d) The purpose of the discussion in the counseling process is directed at solving problems faced by clients.

e) Individuals who receive services (clients) are finally able to solve the problem with their own abilities.

Guidance and counseling activities are different from teaching activities. The difference, among others.

a) The targets for achieving the goals in teaching activities have been formulated in advance and are the same for one class. In guidance and counseling the achievement targets are individual or group.

b) Discussions on teaching activities are directed at providing information and problem solving, while guidance and counseling are aimed at solving client problems.

c) In teaching activities students do not have problems related to the material to be taught, while in guidance and counseling generally clients are facing problems. The specific skills required of teachers and counselors differ

The Role of Guidance and Counseling

Guidance and counseling deal with problems or matters outside the field of teaching, but indirectly support the achievement of the goals of education and teaching at the school. and Schemuller, 1969 in Soetjipto and Kosasi, 2009: 64).

There are several factors that cause guidance and counseling to be felt more and more necessary, as stated by Koestoer Partowisastro (1982) below.

1. School is the second living environment after home.

2. Students who are relatively young really need guidance both in understanding their situation, directing themselves, and in overcoming various kinds of difficulties.

The presence of counselors in schools can ease the task of teachers (Lundquist and Chamely quoted by Belkin's book, 1981 in Soetjipto and Kosasi, 2009: 65).

1. Develop and broaden the teacher's view of affective problems.

2. Develop the teacher's insight that his emotional state can affect the teaching and learning process.

3. Develop a more positive attitude so that the student learning process is more effective.

4. Overcome the problems encountered by the teacher in carrying out their duties.

Counselors and teachers are a very important team in educational activities. Both support each other in an effort to create a more effective learning process.

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The Purpose of Guidance in Schools

Guidance services are needed so that students who have problems can be helped, so that they can learn better. In the 1975 high school curriculum Book III C it is stated that the purpose of guidance in schools is to help students to:

1. Overcoming difficulties in learning, so as to obtain high learning achievement.

2. Overcoming the occurrence of bad habits that he did during the teaching and learning process and in social relationships.

3. Overcoming difficulties related to physical health.

4. Overcome difficulties associated with continuing studies.

5. Overcome the difficulties associated with planning and selecting the type of work after graduation.

6. Overcoming difficulties related to socio-emotional problems at school which stem from the student's attitude towards himself, towards the school environment, family, and the wider environment.

In addition to these goals, Downing (1968) also suggests that the purpose of guidance services in schools is actually the same as self-education , namely helping students to meet their social psychological needs, realize their desires, and develop their abilities or potential.

In general, it can be stated that the purpose of guidance services is to help overcome various kinds of difficulties faced by students so that an effective and efficient teaching and learning process occurs.

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