Differences in Growth and Development and Its Implications in Education

Differences in Growth and Development

Understanding growth, maturity, learning, and exercise and its relationship with development .

The basic concept of development here is intended as changes experienced by individuals or organisms towards their level of maturity (maturity) which take place systematically (Lefrancois, 1975:197) progressive (Witherington, 1952:57) and continuous (Hurlock, 1956:7) , both to know the physical (physical) and psychological (spiritual) it.

There are several terms that are related and often associated with the concept of development, including growth, maturity or maturation and learning or education and training.

With the term growth can be interpreted as a natural change quantitatively in terms of physical or physical (Lefrancois, 1975: 180) and or indicate a certain new function (which was not yet visible) of the organism or individual, both physical and psychological (including patterns of behavior). behavioral patterns and personality traits), in a broad sense (Witherington 1952:87-88, & Hurlock, 1956). Maturity or sensitive period refers to a certain period which is the culmination point of a growth phase (Witherington, 1952:88) as a starting point for the readiness (readiness) of a function (psychological) to carry out its function (Hurlock, 1956)

Read : Social Development Baby, Childhood, Youth, Adult and Factors Affecting Social Development  

Learning or education and training , refers to changes in patterns of reception or behavior and certain aspects of personality as a result of the efforts of the individual or organism concerned within the time limits after the sensitive period arrives. Thus, it can be distinguished that behavioral and personal changes as a result of learning take place intentionally or intentionally by the individual concerned, while changes in the sense of growth and maturity take place naturally according to the course of time or age taken by the person concerned.

Lefrancois (1975: 180) argues that the concept of development has a broad meaning, including quantitative and qualitative aspects as well as physical-psychic aspects as contained in the terms growth, maturity and learning or education and training.

Understanding development and its implications in education.

Basically, development refers to systematic changes in physical and psychological functions. Physical changes include basic biological development as a result of conception (fertilization of an ovum and sperm), and the result of the interaction of biological and genetic processes with the environment. While psychic changes involve the overall psychological characteristics of individuals, such as cognitive, emotional, social, and moral development.

Development can be interpreted as a process of quantitative and qualitative changes in individuals in their life span, starting from the period of conception, infancy, childhood, childhood, adolescence, to adulthood.

Development can also be interpreted as "a process of change in an individual or organism, both physically (physically), and psychologically (spiritually) towards a level of maturity or maturity that takes place systematically, progressively, and continuously". What is meant by systematic, progressive, and continuous are as follows.

1. Systematic, meaning that changes in development are interdependent or mutually influencing parts of the organism (physical and psychological) and constitute a harmonious whole. Examples of this principle, such as the ability to walk as leg muscles mature, or the development of interest in paying attention to the opposite sex as sexual hormones mature.

2. Progressive, means that the changes that occur are advanced, increasing, deep or widespread, both quantitatively (physically) and qualitatively (psychically). For example, such as changes in the proportion and physical size of children (from short to tall, from small to large); and changes in children's knowledge and abilities, from simple to complex (ranging from recognizing letters and numbers to the ability to read, write and count).

3. Continuous, means changes in the part or function of the organism that take place in an orderly or sequential manner, do not occur by chance or jump. For example, to be able to walk, a child must master the previous developmental stages , namely supine, prone, sitting, crawling, and standing; To be able to speak, children must go through the stage of palpation, or to reach adulthood, individuals must go through adolescence, childhood, childhood, infancy and the period of conception.

Explain what is meant by growth and development of a person

The stages of human development have a fairly long phase. For purposes of organization and understanding, we generally describe development in terms of periods or phases of development.

The most widely used classification of developmental periods includes the following order: Prenatal period, infancy, early childhood, middle and late childhood, adolescence, early adulthood, middle adulthood and late adulthood. The following

estimates of the average age range by period give a general idea of when a period begins and ends. The following is a further explanation of each period of the stages of human development in the book Life-Span Development by John Santrock :

1. The prenatal period is the time from conception to birth. This period is a period of extraordinary growth from a single cell to a complete organism with brain and behavioral abilities, which is produced in approximately a 9 month period.

Read : Characteristics of Physical Development of Students, Conditions Affecting Students Physical Growth  

2. Infancy is the period of development that extends from birth to 18 or 24 months. Infancy is a time that is very dependent on adults. Many psychological activities that occur only in the beginning such as language, symbolic thinking, sensorimotor coordination, and social learning.

3. Early childhood (early childhood) is a period of development that spans from infancy to the age of five or six years, this period is usually called the preschool period. During this time, young children learn to be more independent and take care of themselves, develop school readiness skills (following commands, identifying letters), and spending hours playing with peers. If you have entered the first grade of elementary school, it generally ends the early childhood of children.

4. Middle and late childhood is the period of development that extends from about six to eleven years of age , which is roughly equivalent to the elementary school years, this period is usually referred to as the elementary school years. Fundamental skills such as reading, writing, and arithmetic have been mastered. Children are formally connected to the wider world and culture. Achievement becomes a more central theme of the child's world and self-control begins to increase.

5. Adolescence is a period of transition from early childhood to early adulthood, which is entered at the age of about 10 to 12 years and ends at the age of 18 to 22 years. Adolescence begins with rapid physical changes, dramatic weight and height gain, changes in body shape, and the development of sexual characteristics such as breast enlargement, waist and mustache development, and depth of voice. In this development, the achievement of independence and identity is very prominent (thinking is increasingly logical, abstract, and idealistic) and more and more time is spent outside the family.

6. Early adulthood is the developmental period that begins in the late teens or early twenties and ends in the thirties. It is a time of establishing personal and economic independence, a time of career development, and for many, a time of choosing a mate, learning to live with someone intimately, starting a family, and raising children.
Middle adulthood is the developmental period that begins at about 35 to 45 years of age and extends into the sixties. This is a time to expand personal and social engagement and responsibility such as helping the next generation to become competent, mature individuals and achieve and maintain career satisfaction.

7. Late adulthood is the developmental period that begins in the sixties or seventy years and ends at death. This is a time of adjusting to reduced strength and health, looking back at life, retirement, and adjusting to new social roles.

Principles of Growth and Development

1. growth and development is continuous and complex

2. growth and development is an orderly and predictable process

3. growth and development is different and integrated

4. every aspect of growth and development is different at each stage and can be modified

5. stages of fall are specific for each person

Post a Comment

Previous Post Next Post

Contact Form