Concept of Understanding Teenagers and Stages of Adolescent Development

Concept of Understanding Teenagers

Adolescence is a period of transition or transition from late childhood to adulthood. Thus, the pattern of thought and behavior is a transition from children to adults (Damayanti, 2008).

According to Dorland (2011), "adolescence is the period between puberty and the completion of physical growth, roughly from the age of 11 to 19 years".

According to Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), in Sunaryo (2004:44) said that the adolescent phase that lasts from the age of 12-13 years to 20 years.

Adolescence is a period of searching for one's identity from childhood to adulthood. At this time, the mindset and behavior of teenagers is very different from when they were children. Relationships with groups (peers) are closer than relationships with parents.

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Stages of Adolescent Development

The stage of adolescent development starts from the preadolescent phase to the late adolescent phase according to Sullivan's opinion (1892-1949). In these phases there are various characteristics of each phase.

1. Preadolescent Phase

The transition period between childhood and adolescence is often known as preadolescence by professionals in the behavioral sciences (Potter & Perry, 2005). According to Hall, an American psychology scholar, youth ( youth or preadolescence ) is a period of human development that occurs at the age of 8-12 years.

This preadolescent phase is characterized by the need to establish relationships with same-sex friends, the need for friends who can be trusted, cooperate in carrying out tasks, and solving life problems, and the need to build relationships with peers who have similarities, cooperation, reciprocal action, so that not lonely (Sunaryo, 2004:56).

The most important developmental task in the preadolescent phase is learning to relate to peers by competing, compromising and cooperating.

2. Early Adolescence Phase

The early adolescence phase is a continuation phase of preadolescence. At this stage, interest in the opposite sex begins to appear. Thus, adolescents look for a pattern to satisfy their genital urges. According to Steinberg (in Santrock, 2002: 42) suggests that early adolescence is a period when conflict with parents increases beyond the level of childhood.

Sunaryo (2004:56) argues that the most important things in this phase include:

1) The main challenge is to develop heterosexual activity.

2) There are physiological changes.

3) There is a separation between erotic relationships where the target is the opposite sex and intimacy of the same sex.

4) If eroticism and intimacy are not separated, there will be a homosexual relationship.

5) Many conflicts arise due to the need for sexual satisfaction, security and intimacy.

6) An important developmental task is self-study and intercourse with the opposite sex.

3. Late Adolescence Phase

The late adolescence phase is a phase with the characteristics of patterned sexual activity. This is obtained through education to form a truly mature pattern of interpersonal relationships. This phase is an initiation towards rights, obligations, satisfaction, responsibilities of life as a society and a citizen.

Sunaryo (2004:57) says that the developmental tasks of the late adolescence phase are economically , intellectually , and emotionally . self sufficient .

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