Characteristics of Physical Development of Students, Conditions Affecting Students' Physical Growth


Student Growth and Development


As humans who have natural potential, it is possible for students to grow and develop into perfect beings (a fully functioning person). The term growth in students is more defined as an increase in height, weight, the more effective the functions of the body's muscles and physical organs, the five sense organs, body rigidity, and others concerning the progress of the physical aspect. The term development is defined as the more optimal progress of the psychological aspects of students such as creativity, taste, intention, work, personal maturation, emotional control, spiritual sensitivity, faith, and devotion. According to Hurlock (1992) development is a series of progressive changes that occur as a result of the process of maturity and experience.

Physical Development of Students


According to Seifert and Hoffnung (1994), physical development includes changes in the body (such as brain growth, nervous system, sensory organs, height and weight gain, hormones, etc.), and changes in individual behavior. in using the body (such as the development of motor skills and sexual development), as well as changes in physical abilities (such as decreased heart function, vision and so on). The theory of physical development put forward by Gasell and Ames (1940) Sella Illingsworth (1983) physical development includes weight, height, including motor development. In child development education includes: strength, endurance, speed, and balance. The development of learners in early childhood follows the following eight general patterns:

a. Contynuity (sustainability), namely the development from the simple to the complex in line with the increasing age of the child.

b. Uniform sequence (same stages), namely development that has the same stages for all children, although the speed of children to reach different stages.

c. Maturity (maturity), which is a development that students have which is influenced by the development of nerve cells.

d. From general to specific process (process from general to specific), which is a development that starts from general motion to specific motion.

e. From innate reflexes to coordinated movements, which is a development that students have which starts from innate reflex movements from birth to various coordinated and purposeful movements.

f. The cephalo caudal direction is a development characterized by the part approaching the head growing faster than the part approaching the tail.

g. Proximo distal, which is a development that is characterized by parts that approach the axis of the body developing earlier than those that are farther away.

h. From bilateral to crosslateral coordinates, that is, developments that begin with the same coordination develop first before being able to coordinate with cross-linked people.

According to Muss quoted by Sarlito Wirawan (Sarlito, 1991: 51), the characteristics of physical changes are:

1. In girls:

a) Growth of bones (body becomes tall, and limbs become long).

b) Breast growth.

c) Growing fine dark hair on the pubic.

d) Achieve maximum height growth every year.

e) Pubic hair becomes curly.

f) Menstruation or menstruation.

g) Growing armpit hair.


2. In boys:

a) Growth of bones.

b) The testes (testicles) are enlarged.

c) Growing pubic hair that is smooth, straight, and dark in color.

d) Beginning of voice change.

e) Ejaculation (sperm discharge)

f) Pubic hair becomes curly.

g) Growth in height reaches its maximum level every year.

h) Growing fine hair on the face.

i) Growing armpit hair.

j) End of voice change.

k) Facial hair grows thicker and darker.

l) Growing hair on the chest.


For school-age children and adolescents, optimal physical growth and development is very important, because children's physical growth/development will directly or indirectly affect their daily behavior. Directly, physical growth will determine the child's skills in moving. Indirectly, physical growth/development will affect the way children see themselves and others.


Characteristics of Physical Development of Students


In terms of growth and physical development, elementary school age is a period of slow and relatively uniform physical growth until puberty changes begin, approximately two years before children become sexually mature, at which time growth develops rapidly. This period is often referred to as the "quiet period" before the rapid growth leading up to adolescence. This does not mean that at this time there is no significant physical growth process.

a. Characteristics of physical development in childhood (0-5 years) The development of physical abilities in young children is marked by starting to be able to do various kinds of basic movements that are getting better, namely movements of walking, running, jumping, jumping, prancing, throwing, catching, associated with greater strength as a result of the growth of greater muscle tissue. In addition, development is also marked by proportional growth in the length of the legs and arms. Physical development in childhood is also characterized by well-developed coordination of movement and balance.

b. Characteristics of physical development in childhood (5-11) The development of reaction time is slower than in childhood, eye coordination is well developed, small muscles are still not developed, general health is relatively unstable and easy to get sick, vulnerable and has poor endurance. 8-9 years old

·There is an improvement in body coordination, increased body resistance, boys tend to have physical contact activities such as fighting and wrestling, eye and hand coordination are better, the circulatory system is still not strong, muscle and nerve coordination is still not good. In terms of psychology, girls are one year ahead of boys. 10-11 years old

·The strength of boys is stronger than women, blood pressure rises and metabolism is sharp. Women begin to experience sexual maturity (12 years). Only 5% of men reach sexual maturity.

c. Characteristics of physical development in adolescence The most prominent physical development is the development of strength, endurance, and sexual organs in adolescence. Characteristics of physical development in adolescence are characterized by rapid growth in weight and height, growth of primary sexual signs (glands and genitals) and secondary sexual signs (growing breasts, menstruation, mustache, and wet dreams, etc.). etc.), the emergence of high sexual desire (puberty).

d. Characteristics of physical development in adulthood Physical abilities in adulthood in each individual become highly variable along with physical growth. Men tend to be better physically and move more skillfully. Proportional growth in body size provides strong physical abilities. In adulthood, growth reaches its maximum point. Physical growth begins to stop so that the results of this growth determine physical abilities at this time.

Conditions Affecting Students' Physical Growth


Physical growth is closely related to the condition of students. Good conditions have a good impact on the physical growth of students, and vice versa. The conditions that affect it are as follows:

1. Family Influence Family influence includes heredity and physical characteristics of her parents. Hereditary factors cause a child to be taller or longer than other children, if the father and mother or grandfather are tall and long.

2. Effects of Nutrition Children who get adequate nutrition will usually be taller and reach adulthood a little faster than those who do not get enough nutrition. The environment can also have an influence on students in such a way that it inhibits or accelerates the potential for growth in adolescence.

3. Maturity Physical growth as if as planned by the maturity factor. Even though the child is given nutritious food, if the time of maturity has not arrived, the growth is still like being delayed.

4. Emotional Disorders Children who often experience emotional disorders will cause the formation of excessive adrenal steroids and this will result in reduced formation of growth hormone in the pituitary gland (brain). When this happens, the early growth of adolescents is stunted and their body weight is not achieved.

5. Gender Boys tend to be taller and heavier than girls, except at the age of 12-15 years. Girls will usually be slightly taller and heavier than boys. This happens because the shape of the bones and muscles in boys is different from girls. Girls mature faster than boys.

6. Socio-Economic Status Generally, children from families with low socioeconomic status tend to be smaller than children from families with high economic levels.

7. Health Health is very influential on the physical growth of students. Students who are healthy and rarely sick usually have a bigger body than those who are often sick.

8. Stimulation of the environment Individuals whose bodies are often trained to increase their growth acceleration will be different from those who have never received training.

The Effect of Physical Development of Students in Education


The physical development of students will affect the learning process of students. Students perform various physical activities as a learning experience. The condition of the five senses, normality of limbs, nutritional intake and overall health conditions affect the learning process. Sight and hearing are very important in learning. Disturbances in the function of the five senses cause individual attention is not optimal in learning. changes in shape and weight, enlarged voice, slower physical movements, sleepiness, feeling uncomfortable when experiencing menstruation, all of these have an influence on the learning atmosphere of students.

Likewise, physical development that is too fast or too late for the size of students his age will be able to affect the behavior of students among their peers. Educators need to realize that the physical development experienced by students in the process of development affects the learning process of students.

Therefore, educators need to provide information to students about this so that they can understand it correctly and be mentally prepared to deal with it.


The Importance of Studying the Physical Development of Students for Educators


For educators, the benefits that can be drawn from studying the physical development of students include:

1) Educators can understand the characteristics of the physical development of students.

2) Educators can understand the stages of development of students.

3) Educators can understand the behavior of their students as a result of the physical development of students.

4) Educators can determine learning methods by adjusting the physical development of students.

Activities That Can Help Students' Physical Development


1) Sports

2) Scout Activities

3) Games/ “Outbound”

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